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The '''''Necronomicon''''' is the title of a fictional book created by [[H.P. Lovecraft]] and often featured in stories based on the [[Cthulhu Mythos]] inspired by his works. However, some people believe in the existence of an actual ancient text called the ''Necronomicon'' which may or may not fit the description given in Lovecraft's fiction.  
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The ''Necronomicon'' is the title of a fictional book created by [[H.P. Lovecraft]]. Numerous other authors including [[Clark Ashton Smith]], [[Brian Lumley]], [[Ramsey Campbell]] and [[Keith Herber]] have added to its contents over the years.
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==Description==
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The Kitab al Azif (original Arabic title of the Necronomicon) was written in the early 8th century by [[Abdul Alhazred]]. Alhazred was a poet in the court of a minor nobleman in the city of Sanaá. For reasons unknown he left the city and spent ten years wandering in the deserts. During this time he visited places such as [[Irim]]; City of the Pillars, the catacombs of Egypt and  the temple of [[Nug and Yeb]] in the Crimson Desert. In his old age Alhazred lived in the great city of Damascus, where he produced the Kitab al Azif. In the long years that followed many translations of this great work have been made.
  
== The book ==
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==Contents==
Lovecraft often referenced fictional works in his [[horror fiction]], a practice common among subsequent fantasy authors like [[Jorge Luis Borges]] and [[William Goldman]]. The ''Necronomicon'' was first mentioned in Lovecraft's [[1923 in literature|1923]] short story "[[The Hound]]", though hints of it (or similar books) appear as far back as "[[The Statement of Randolph Carter]]" ([[1919 in literature|1919]]). In the stories, the book is [[Motif of harmful sensation|dangerous to read]] because it is often harmful to the health and sanity of its readers. For this reason, libraries keep it under lock and key.  
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Alhazred's knoweldge is so extensive and wide ranging that describing all the al Azif's contents in such a short space would be nigh on impossible. However, I shall endeavour to give a short list of samples (note: there are many more spells I haven't listed).  
  
Capitalizing on the notoriety of the fictional tome, real-life [[publisher]]s have printed many books entitled ''Necronomicon'' since Lovecraft's death.
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*A section that mentions creatures beyond the threshold of space such as the [[Tomb Herd]].
  
=== Origin and fictional history ===
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*A description of the powers the Other Name of Azathoth gives the wielder (but not the name itself).
How Lovecraft conceived the name "Necronomicon" is not clear—Lovecraft himself claimed that the title came to him in a dream. Perhaps he was influenced by [[Edgar Allan Poe]]'s "[[The Fall of the House of Usher]]" and an unfinished [[first century]] [[astronomy|astronomical]] poem by Roman poet [[Marcus Manilius]] titled the ''[[Astronomicon]]''. Although some have suggested that Lovecraft was influenced primarily by [[Robert W. Chambers]]' collection of short stories, ''[[The King in Yellow]]'', it is now believed that Lovecraft did not read that work until [[1927]].
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*Information on the [[Gulf of S'glhuo]].  
Lovecraft originally titled the book the ''Al Azif'' (from [[Arabic language|Arabic]], meaning the sound of [[cicada]]s and other nocturnal [[insect]]s, which [[folklore]] claims is the conversations of [[demon]]s) and said that it was written by the Mad [[Arab]] [[Abdul Alhazred]]. Among other things, the work contained an account of the [[Cthulhu mythos|Old Ones]], their history, and the means for summoning them.  
 
 
 
According to Lovecraft, Alhazred wrote the original text in [[Damascus]] around [[730]] AD, but a number of translations were made over the centuries. The Greek translation, which gave the book its most famous title, was made by a (fictional) [[Eastern Orthodoxy|Orthodox]] scholar, Theodorus Philetas of [[Constantinople]] circa [[950]] AD. [[Olaus Wormius]] (an actual historical person wrongly placed by Lovecraft in the [[thirteenth century]]) translated it into [[Latin]] and indicated in the preface that the Arabic original was lost. This translation was printed twice: In the [[fifteenth century]], evidently in [[Germany]] in [[black-letter]], and in the [[seventeenth century|seventeenth]], probably in [[Spain]].
 
 
 
When the Latin translation called attention to the ''Necronomicon'', it was banned by [[Pope Gregory IX]] in [[1232]]. The Greek translation, printed in [[Italy]] between [[1500]] and [[1550]], was probably lost when fire destroyed R. U. Pickman's library in [[Salem, Massachusetts|Salem]]. The [[Elizabethan]] magician [[John Dee]] allegedly had a copy (an idea suggested to Lovecraft by his friend [[Frank Belknap Long]]) and is thought to have made an [[English language|English]] translation, of which only fragments survive.
 
  
=== Criticism ===
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*A chapter on a complicated and lengthy process capable of resurrecting the dead.
<!--This paragraph is vague. Necronomicon as "deus ex machina" in "Dunwich Horror" would be a valid point.-->
 
Some critics accuse Lovecraft of using the ''Necronomicon'' as ''[[deus ex machina]]'' in his stories, having it mentioned whenever the narrator makes an occult reference, no matter how unlikely it is that the narrator has delved into the occult. However, this practice is far more common in the [[wikt:pastiche|pastiche]]s of his imitators than in the stories of Lovecraft himself. With the possible exception of the protagonists in "The Dunwich Horror", all of the characters in Lovecraft's works who read the Mad Arab's book come to horrific ends.  
 
  
<!--The following should be cited with a footnote to the reference where it comes from. Is it POV? (The paragraph is also vague.)-->
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*A formula for temporarily banishing manifestations of [[Ahtu]].
Some note that in ''[[At the Mountains of Madness]]'' virtually all the characters on the [[Antarctic]] expedition have read the ''Necronomicon'', although it is unlikely that a diverse group of [[geologists]], [[biologists]], and [[engineers]] would have had reason to read such an unusual book. The explanation may lie in their connection with [[Miskatonic University]]. The university is renowned for its occult library, which holds a copy of the famed Necronomicon&mdash;a book likely to be of interest to both students and academics alike, especially those who value knowledge and experience outside their fields. Consequently, it may not be a coincidence that all the members of the expedition have read the ''Necronomicon''&mdash;reading the dreaded book ultimately ties in with their fate in the Antarctic. Furthermore, [[Cthulhu mythos biographies|Danforth]], who has read the book cover-to-cover, suffers a worse fate than the more casual readers.
 
  
== Appearance and content ==
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*Page 984 contains a passage in the [[Naacal]], no translation is given.
Lovecraft made frequent reference to the ''Necronomicon'' but was very sparing with actual detail of its appearance and contents. That it is a substantial tome cannot be questioned as Wilbur Whateley of [[Dunwich]] comes to [[Miskatonic University]] to find the page which would have appeared on the 751st page of his own inherited, but defective, Dee edition by comparing it with the University's copy ("[[The Dunwich Horror]]").  
 
  
However, other than the obvious black letter editions nothing else is known of its physical dimension or appearance although it is commonly portrayed as bound in leather of various types and having metal clasps. Editions are sometimes disguised, as Mr John Merrit discovers to his disquiet when pulling down a book labelled ''Qanoon-e-Islam'' from Joseph Curwen’s bookshelf and discovering it actually to be the Necronomicon in ''[[The Case of Charles Dexter Ward]]''.
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*The Zoan Chant; a spell for reflected harmful powers sent against the caster.
  
The three direct quotes by Lovecraft from the ''Necronomicon'' are as follows:
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*Stories about a [[Ghoul]].
 
 
* From "[[The Nameless City]]":
 
<blockquote>
 
''That is not dead which can eternal lie,''
 
<br>''And with strange aeons death may die.''
 
<br>(Later versions of the same quote always read "even death may die".)
 
</blockquote>
 
 
* From "[[The Festival]]":
 
<blockquote>
 
''The nethermost caverns are not for the fathoming of eyes that see; for their marvels are strange and terrific. Cursed the ground where dead thoughts live new and oddly bodied, and evil the mind that is held by no head. Wisely did Ibn Schacabao say, that happy is the tomb where no wizard hath lain, and happy the town at night whose wizards are all ashes. For it is of old rumour that the soul of the devil-bought hastes not from his charnel clay, but fats and instructs the very worm that gnaws; till out of corruption horrid life springs, and the dull scavengers of earth wax crafty to vex it and swell monstrous to plague it. Great holes secretly are digged where earth's pores ought to suffice, and things have learnt to walk that ought to crawl.''
 
</blockquote>
 
  
* From "[[The Dunwich Horror]]":
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*A formula for [[Mind Transference]].
<blockquote>
 
''Nor is it to be thought that man is either the oldest or the last of earth's masters, or that the common bulk of life and substance walks alone. The [[Great Old One|Old Ones]] were, the Old Ones are, and the Old Ones shall be. Not in the spaces we know, but between them, they walk serene and primal, undimensioned and to us unseen. [[Yog-Sothoth]] knows the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the key and guardian of the gate. Past, present, future, all are one in Yog-Sothoth. He knows where the Old Ones broke through of old, and where They shall break through again. He knows where They had trod earth's fields, and where They still tread them, and why no one can behold Them as They tread. By Their smell can men sometimes know Them near, but of Their semblance can no man know, saving only in the features of those They have begotten on mankind; and of those are there many sorts, differing in likeness from man's truest eidolon to that shape without sight or substance which is Them. They walk unseen and foul in lonely places where the Words have been spoken and the Rites howled through at their Seasons. The wind gibbers with Their voices, and the earth mutters with Their consciousness. They bend the forest and crush the city, yet may not forest or city behold the hand that smites. [[Kadath]] in the cold waste hath known Them, and what man knows Kadath? The ice desert of the South and the sunken isles of Ocean hold stones whereon Their seal is engraver, but who hath seen the deep frozen city or the sealed tower long garlanded with seaweed and barnacles? Great [[Cthulhu]] is Their cousin, yet can he spy Them only dimly. Iä! [[Shub-Niggurath]]! As a foulness shall ye know Them. Their hand is at your throats, yet ye see Them not; and Their habitation is even one with your guarded threshold. Yog-Sothoth is the key to the gate, whereby the spheres meet. Man rules now where They ruled once; They shall soon rule where man rules now. After summer is winter, after winter summer. They wait patient and potent, for here shall They reign again.''
 
</blockquote>
 
  
There exist innumerable other ''Necronomicon'' quotes but those above are the only ones written by Lovecraft himself.
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*Instructions on how to make the [[Powder of Ibn Ghazi]].
  
== Locations ==
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*A foot note containing an untitled formula capable of opening a gateway to [[Cthugha]].
In Lovecraft's works, various people and places have copies of the ''Necronomicon'' (although it is far rarer than later imitators would have one believe despite its persistent appearances). Copies of the ''Necronomicon'' are held by only five institutions worldwide: The [[British Museum]] (now held at the [[British Library]]); the [[Bibliothèque nationale de France]]; [[Widener Library]] of [[Harvard University]] in [[Cambridge, Massachusetts|Cambridge]], [[Massachusetts]]; the [[Universidad de Buenos Aires|University of Buenos Aires]]; and the library of the [[fiction]]al [[Miskatonic University]] in the equally fictional [[Arkham]], [[Massachusetts]]. The latter edition is the Latin translation by Olaus Wormius, printed in [[Spain]] in the [[17th century]].
 
  
Other copies are kept by private individuals. Wilbur Whateley possesses a copy in "[[The Dunwich Horror]]" ([[1929 in literature|1929]]), which is presumed to have gone to his heirs after his death. Joseph Curwen's copy, mentioned above, was almost certainly destroyed by the raiding party that took his life. Harley Warren's version (which is not mentioned by name but is instead most likely a copy) goes with him to his fate in "The Statement of Randolph Carter" ([[1919 in literature|1919]]). A version is mentioned as being held in Kingsport in both "[[The Festival]]" ([[1925 in literature|1925]]) and (by implication) ''[[The Case of Charles Dexter Ward]]'' ([[1941 in literature|1941]]). The provenance of the copy read by the narrator of "The Nameless City" ([[1921 in literature|1921]]) is unknown, while the version read by the main character in "The Hound" ([[1924 in literature|1924]]) is presumed destroyed when all of his charnel goods are so disposed.
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*A passage about the [[Crawling Ones]] and the Green Flame [[Tulzscha]].
  
== Etymology of the title ==
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*Page 751 contains a long chant capable of summoning [[Yog-Sothoth]] if used at the right time.
Lovecraft wrote that the meaning of the title as translated from the [[Greek language]]: ''nekros'' (corpse), ''nomos'' (law), ''eikon'' (image) was: "An image of the law of the dead." A more prosaic (but probably more correct) translation, is via conjugation of ''nemo'' (''to consider''): "Concerning the dead." Another [[etymology]] that has been suggested here is "knowledge of the dead," from Greek ''nekrós'' (''corpse'', ''dead''), and ''gnomein'' (''to know''), on the apparent assumption that the ''[[g]]'' could be lost.
 
  
Greek editions of Lovecraft's works have commented that in Greek the word can have several different meanings when broken at its roots. More specifically:
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*Information on the Black Pharaoh [[Nephren-Ka]].
  
; ''Necro-Nomicon'' : The Book of the Law of the Dead, derived from Nomicon (Book of Law).
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*A large amount of information on the Antarctic [[Elder Things]].
; ''Necro-Nomo-icon'' : The Book of Dead Laws.
 
; ''Necro-Nemo-ikon'' : A Study or Classification of the Dead.
 
; ''Necro-Nomo-eikon'' : Image of the Law of the Dead.
 
; ''Necro-Nemein-Ikon'' : Book Concerning the Dead.
 
; ''Necr&#972;-Nomo-eikon'' : Law of Dead Images.
 
; ''Necr-Onom-icon'' : The Book of Dead Names, derived from onoma (name).
 
<!--Hiding dubious entries---SHOW ME THE REFERENCE and I'll believe these are real...
 
; ''Ne-Crono-Mycon'' : Timeless fungus.
 
; ''Necro-Tomicon''  : The proper form of the nickname "Tom".  From English meaning "Dead Tom".
 
-->
 
  
== The ''Necronomicon'' as a real book ==
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*Information on an ancient aquatic race Alhazred terms the [[Dwellers in the Depths]]. This page also features an astrological chart.
Though Lovecraft insisted the book was pure invention (and other writers invented passages from the book in their own works), there are accounts of some people actually believing his ''Necronomicon'' to be a real book. Even during Lovecraft's life he received letters from fans inquiring about the ''Necronomicon''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s authenticity. Occasionally, [[prank]]sters listed the ''Necronomicon'' for sale in book store newsletters or inserted phony [[library]] [[card catalogue]] entries for the book.
 
  
This line between fact and fiction was further confused in the late [[1970s]] by the publication of a book purporting to be a translation of the "real" ''Necronomicon''. This book, by the pseudonymic "Simon", has little connection to the fictional Lovecraft mythology but rather is based on  [[Sumerian Mythology]]. It has later been dubbed the "[[Simon Necronomicon]]".
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* Page 224 contains the [[Hoy-Dhin Chant]].
  
A blatant hoax version of the ''Necronomicon'' was produced by paranormal researcher and writer [[Colin Wilson]], describing how it was translated by computer from a discovered "cipher text." It is far truer to the Lovecraftean version and even incorporates quotations from Lovecraft's stories into its passages.
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* Instructions on how to destroy an egg of [[Yig]] using a combination of musical notes.
  
Historical "Books of the Dead" such as the [[ancient Egypt]]ian ''[[Book of the Dead]]'' or the [[Tibet]]an ''[[Bardo Thodol]]'' are sometimes described as "real ''Necronomicons''."  They should not be confused with the Lovecraft ''Necronomicon'', as their contents are meant to be read or remembered by the dead, rather than used by the living to summon the dead. Lovecraft, however, may have been inspired by these books.
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*An illustration of the [[Furnace of Nug]].
  
== References to the ''Necronomicon'' ==
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*A prophecy foretelling the rebirth of the high priest [[Nophru Ka]].
[[Image:necronomicon-1.jpg|thumb|''Necronomicon Ex Mortis'', from [[The Evil Dead]] trilogy of films]]
 
  
Many [[fantasy]] and [[horror fiction|horror]] writers have mentioned the ''Necronomicon'' in their own stories. The ''Necronomicon'' has also become part of [[popular culture]], influencing [[band (music)|bands]], [[filmmaker]]s, [[television]] writers, and [[video game]] developers.
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* A chapter on [[Umr-At-Tawil]] and the ultimate gate.
  
* Various writers in the school of the Cthulhu mythos have "quoted" from the ''Necronomicon'', among them [[Clark Ashton Smith]] and [[August Derleth]].
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==Quotes==
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Here follows a small selection of quotes from various translations of the Necronomicon:
  
* The movie ''[[Necronomicon (movie)|Necronomicon]]'' is based on Lovecraft's stories.
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:''And it was dreamed again of the priest Nophra-Ka and of the words he spake at his death, how the son would rise to claim the title, and the son would rule the world in his father’s name, and the son would revenge his father’s murder, and the son would call the Beast that is worshipped, and the sands would drink the blood of the seed of the Pharaoh. In this manner did Nophra-Ka prophecy.'' - Excerpt from the Kitab al Azif.
  
* The [[Stephen King]] book ''[[The Eyes of the Dragon]]'' includes a reference to a book "bound in human flesh" that the magician Flagg cannot read for too long for fear of losing his sanity. It is also referenced as a very long book.
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:''...Verily do we know little of the other universes beyond the gate which YOG-SOTHOTH guards. Of those which come through the gate and make their habitation in this world none can tell; although Ibn Schacabao tells of the beings which crawl from the Gulf of S'ghlhuo that they may be known by their sound. In that Gulf the very worlds are of sound, and matter is known but as an odor; and the notes of our pipes in this world may create beauty or bring forth abominations in S'glhuo. For the barrier between haply grows thin, and when sourceless sounds occur we may justly look to the denizens of S'glhuo. They can do little harm to those of Earth, and fear only that shape which a certain sound may form in their universe...'' - Translated from the Latin version.
  
* In a passage in [[Gene Wolfe]]'s [[novel]] ''Peace'', a book of [[necromancy]] being forged by a character is not named but its form suggests the popular image of the ''Necronomicon''.
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:''...Men know him as the Dweller in Darkness, that brother of the Old Ones called Nyogtha, the Thing that should not be. He can be summoned to Earth's surface through certain secret caverns and fissures, and sorcerers have seen him in Syria and below the black tower of Leng: from the Thang Grotto of Tartary he has come ravening to bring terror and destruction among the pavilions of the great Khan. Only by the looped cross, by the Vach-Viraj incantation, and by the Tikkoun elixir may he be driven back to the nighted caverns of hidden foulness where he dwelleth...'' - Translated from the Latin version.
  
* [[Neil Gaiman]] and [[Terry Pratchett]] created a parody of the ''Necronomicon'' called the ''[[Minor Discworld concepts#Necrotelecomnicon|Necrotelecomnicon]]''&mdash;the book of [[phone number]]s of the dead.
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:''. . . from the space which is not space, into any time when the Words are spoken, can the holder of the Knowledge summon The Black, blood of YibbTstll, that which liveth apart from him and eateth souls, that which smothers and is called Drowner. Only in water can one escape the drowning; that which is in water drowneth not . . . '' - Translated from the Latin version.
  
* [[Andrzej Sapkowski]] mentions a [[Polish language|Polish]] translation of the book titled ''&#377;wierzcyad&#322;o Maggi Czarney Bissurma&#324;skiey'' in his short story "Tandaradei!". It is also mentioned under its original title in his novel ''Bo&#380;y bojownicy'' (''God's Warriors'').
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:''The nethermost caverns are not for the fathoming of eyes that see; for their marvels are strange and terrific. Cursed the ground where dead thoughts live new and oddly bodied, and evil the mind that is held by no head. Wisely did Ibn Schacabao say, that happy is the tomb where no wizard hath lain, and happy the town at night whose wizards are all ashes. For it is of old rumor that the soul of the devil-bought hastes not from his charnel clay, but fats and instructs the very worm that gnaws; till out of corruption horrid life springs, and the dull scavengers of earth wax crafty to vex it and swell monstrous to plague it. Great holes secretly are digged where earth’s pores ought to suffice, and things have learnt to walk that ought to crawl....'' - Translated from the Latin version.  (HPL, "[[The Festival (fiction)]]"
  
* [[Sergey Lukyanenko]] employes the ''Necronomicon'' in ''[[Night Watch (Russian novel)|Night Watch]]''.
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:''Nor is it to be thought that man is either the oldest or the last of earth's masters, or that the common bulk of life and substance walks alone. The Old Ones were, the Old Ones are, and the Old Ones shall be. Not in the spaces we know, but between them, they walk serene and primal, undimensioned and to us unseen. Yog-Sothoth knows the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the key and guardian of the gate. Past, present, future, all are one in Yog-Sothoth. He knows where the Old Ones broke through of old, and where They shall break through again. He knows where They had trod earth's fields, and where They still tread them, and why no one can behold Them as They tread. By Their smell can men sometimes know Them near, but of Their semblance can no man know, saving only in the features of those They have begotten on mankind; and of those are there many sorts, differing in likeness from man's truest eidolon to that shape without sight or substance which is Them. They walk unseen and foul in lonely places where the Words have been spoken and the Rites howled through at their Seasons. The wind gibbers with Their voices, and the earth mutters with Their consciousness. They bend the forest and crush the city, yet may not forest or city behold the hand that smites. Kadath in the cold waste hath known Them, and what man knows Kadath? The ice desert of the South and the sunken isles of Ocean hold stones whereon Their seal is engraver, but who hath seen the deep frozen city or the sealed tower long garlanded with seaweed and barnacles? Great Cthulhu is Their cousin, yet can he spy Them only dimly. Iä! Shub-Niggurath! As a foulness shall ye know Them. Their hand is at your throats, yet ye see Them not; and Their habitation is even one with your guarded threshold. Yog-Sothoth is the key to the gate, whereby the spheres meet. Man rules now where They ruled once; They shall soon rule where man rules now. After summer is winter, after winter summer. They wait patient and potent, for here shall They reign again.'' - Translated from the Latin version.
  
* The ''Necronomicon'' appears in ''[[Illuminatus! Trilogy|The Illuminatus! Trilogy]]'' by [[Robert Anton Wilson]] and [[Robert Shea]].
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:''And while there are those who have dared to seek glimpses beyond the Veil, and to accept HIM as a Guide, they would have been more prudent had they avoided commerce with HIM; for it is written in the Book of Thoth how terrific is the price of a single glimpse. Nor may those who pass ever return, for in the Vastnesses transcending our world are Shapes of darkness that seize and bind. The Affair that shambleth about in the night, the Evil that defieth the Elder Sign, the Herd that stand watch at the secret portal each tomb is known to have, and that thrive on that which groweth out of the tenants within—all these Blacknesses are lesser than HE Who guardeth the Gateway; HE Who will guide the rash one beyond all the worlds into the Abyss of unnamable Devourers. For HE is UMR AT-TAWIL, the Most Ancient One, which the scribe rendereth as THE PROLONGED OF LIFE.'' - [[H.P. Lovecraft]] and [[E. Hoffman Price]], [[Through the Gates of the Silver Key]]
  
* ''[[Necronomicon (H. R. Giger)|Necronomicon]]'' was the title of a book of paintings by the [[Swiss]] artist [[H. R. Giger]] (published in [[1978]]). It was appropriately titled considering his particularly sinister style of blended machinery and flesh.
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:''Bugg-Shash is unbearable!  His lips suck; He knows not defeat but brings down His victim at the last; aye, even though He follows that victim unto Death and beyond to achieve His purpose. And there was a riddle known to my forefathers: 'What evil wakes that should lie dead, Swathed in horror toe to head?' ''  - Apparently from John Dee's expurgated ''Necronomicon'',  as portrayed by Brian Lumley in "The Kiss of Bugg-Shash" (the volume described there as a leather-bound book whose title was seared from the spine; the quotes were recognized as being from the ''Necronomicon'', but closer examination revealed that much of the Arab's original material on the subject was missing)
  
* In [[Sam Raimi]]'s popular movie trilogy, ''[[Evil Dead]]'', ''[[Evil Dead 2]]'', and ''[[Army of Darkness]]'', the ''Necronomicon Ex Mortis'' appears as an evil book of magic. In the first film of the trilogy, [[Ash Williams]] hears a recording of an academic reading from the book which eventually leads to his later trouble.
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==Versions==
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=== Kitab al Azif===
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The Arabic manuscripts are faithful reproductions of  Abdul al Alhazred 's original.  These version are written upon scrolls and preserved in codices. All in all its contents total over one thousand pages  complete with star charts, formula tables and astrological maps.
  
* [[Science fiction]] author [[Neal Stephenson]] derived the title of his book ''[[Cryptonomicon]]'' from the ''Necronomicon'' featured in the ''[[Evil Dead]]'' movies, not knowing that the name had originated from Lovecraft.
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===Greek Translation===
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In 950 AD [[Theodore Philétas]] of Constantinople made a Greek translation of the Kitab al Azif. This volume was named the Necronomicon after its opening words. Despite a few errors Philétas's reproductions of the book's charts and tables are faithful to Alhazred 's original illustrations. In 1050 the Patriarch Michel had many of copies of the book burnt.
  
* [[Metallica]]'s song "The Thing that Should not Be" contains lines derived from a quotation from the ''Necronomicon'': "That is not dead which can eternal lie/ And with strange eons even death may die" (shortened to "Not dead which eternal lie / stranger eons death may die").  [[Beatallica]]'s "The Thing that Should not Let it Be" is thus also derived from the ''Necronomicon'', albeit second hand.
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Sometime between 1501 and 1550 the Italian Aldus Manutius commissioned the printing of around one hundred folio sized copies of Philétas's Greek translation.
  
* In ''[[The Simpsons]]'', [[Bob Dole]] reads from the ''Necronomicon'' at the [[Republican Party]]'s headquarters.
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Interestingly, the Greek translation contains a spell not present in the original. It is a formula used to open a Gate under Memphis through which the black sphinx; one of the million favoured ones, may enter the world. It is unknown whether Philétas added this spell of his own accord or if it had been added to his Arabic version by a previous owner.
  
* In ''[[The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy]]'', Billy steals Grim's copy of "The Bad Book" to raise Yog Soloth.
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=== Latin Translation ===
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A Latin translation of Philétas's Greek version was made in 1228 by a Dominican monk named [[Olaus Wormius]] (no relation to the 16th century Danish physician Ole Worm). Unfortunately Wormius's beautifully stylised illustrations robbed many of the star charts of their accuracy. This edition was widely printed up until Pope Gregory IX outlawed it, after which many copies were destroyed.
  
* In an episode of ''[[Aqua Teen Hunger Force]]'', Frylock almost gives Meatwad the ''Necronomicon'' instead of the [[Bible]].
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The Latin translation was reprinted in 1477 by a German publisher. The production was printed in black letter and a number of woodcuts were added.
  
* In an episode of ''[[Justice League Unlimited]]'', [[Shayera]] and [[Wonder Woman]] come across the ''Necronomicon'' shortly after entering Hades' library. Minutes later, Felix Faust casually mentions the book by name.
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Another reprint was made in Spain during the year of 1662. Both this and the above version were 802 page long folios.
  
* In an episode of ''[[The Venture Bros.]]'', Dr. Orpheus refuses to swear on a Bible before taking the witness stand in court, instead preferring to take the oath on the ''Necronomicon''.
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===English “Dee” Translation ===
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While staying at the home of a [[Baron Hauptman]] the famed occultist [[Doctor John Dee]] made an English translation from Hauptman's Greek copy. Dee's translation is garbled and in many places he has changed outright the meaning of certain things to fit with in his own Enochian beliefs. Never the less, his translations of many of the spells remains accurate. This version exists only in manuscript form.
  
* In a level of the video game ''[[Max Payne]]'', Max encounters the ''Necronomicon'' and ''[[Paradise Lost]]'' among people who believe in the somewhat unrelated [[Norse mythology]].
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===The Sussex Manuscript ===
 +
Baron Frederic of Sussex produced a supposed translation in illuminated manuscript form. This translation is rife with inaccuracies and fanciful ideas added by the author. It contains such outlandish misconceptions as [[Cthulhu]] being a manifestation of [[Nyarlathotep]], and [[Abhoth]] having created the solar system. Although this "translation" is commonly called The Sussex Manuscript its proper title is Cultus Maleficarum.
  
* In ''[[Castlevania 64]]'' for [[Nintendo 64]], the option menu is a book entitled ''Necronomicon''. The book also appears in the video games ''[[Tales of Phantasia]]'' and ''[[Tales of Symphonia]]''.
+
=== Das Verichteraraberbuch===
 +
Doctor [[Friedrich Wilhelm von Junz]] made a translation from an unknown Greek copy. This translation may have been published eight years after his death 1840 but I have been unable to track down any further details.
  
* ''Digital Pinball: Necronomicon'' is a [[Japan|Japanese]] video pinball game for the [[Sega Saturn]] console.
+
===[[Voynich Manuscript]]===
 +
This is a fictionalized version of the real-world tome, ''[[Voynich Manuscript]]''.
  
* In ''[[Megatokyo]]'', a [[webcomic]], one of the characters finds a book called ''Necrowombicon'', said to be used to make ''[[Daikatana]]''. The ''Necrowombicon'' has its origins in the webcomic ''[[Penny Arcade (comic)|Penny Arcade]]''.
+
The Voynich manuscript was discovered in an Italian castle in 1921 and was translated by [[Paul Dunbar Lang]] in the 1960s. It is a fragment, or summary of the Necronomicon translated in the 1200s. The text was highly hidden, behind both a fake cypher, and a medieval Arabic transliteration of a Greek and Latin mix. It mentions [[Azathoth]] as a "vortex filled with stars" and follows it with a description of quantum theory. It also mentions references to genes and other  very advanced scientific theories as well as more occult texts.
  
* In the humorous [[film noir]] movie ''Cast a Deadly Spell'', [[Fred Ward]] plays the private detective H. Phillip Lovecraft, who is hired by a questionable character to retrieve a book called ''The Necronomicon''. The book has been stolen from the latter's personal library.
+
== Joachim Ferry's Notes on the Necronomicon==
 +
In 1901 the noted occultist [[ Joachim Ferry]] produced a pamphlet on the book. It is mostly made up of translated quotes from the Latin version, augmented by pages of notes and speculation on their meaning. The accuracy of this publication was called into question when Ferry freely admitted including excerpts from his own dreams.
  
* In ''[[Defense of the Ancients]]'', the ''Necronomicon'' is an item that increases the Intelligence statistic and allows the player to summon two soldiers with [[wikt:necromatic|necromatic]] powers. It is mainly useful to [[mage]]s.
 
  
* In [[1971 in literature|1971]], science fiction author [[Larry Niven]] published a humorous short story called "The Last Necronomicon".
+
== ''Necronomicon Ex-Mortis'' ==
  
* In the comic ''[[Van Von Hunter]]'', there is a book called ''Notdanecronomicon'' which when touched without first saying "all clear" summons an undead army.
+
The ''Naturan Demanto'' or ''Necronomicon Ex-Mortis'' from the ''[[Evil Dead (1981 franchise)]]'' might best be treated as an unrelated tome; see ''[[Necronomicon Ex-Mortis]]''...
  
* In the webcomic ''[[Sam and Fuzzy]]'', there is a book called "the necro-deatho-bookikon" referred to as mainstream satanistic garbage.
 
  
* In the webcomic ''[[Movie Punks]]'', there is a book called the ''Punkronomicon'', which is used for picking up goth chicks in clubs and bars.
+
== ''Simon Necronomicon'' ==
  
* In the 2nd edition ''[[Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay]]'' core book, there is a very thinly-veiled reference on page 219 to the ''Necronomicon'': "Another such volume is the ''Book of the Dead'', written by the mad Arabyan prince Abdul ben Raschid ... Only the most strong-willed can read these books and retain any sense of sanity. These forbidden tomes tell of the horrible secrets of the beyond, of the dark insane dreams that the dead dream in their eternal rest."
+
The hoax mass-market paperback written by "Simon" called ''The Necronomicon'' (or, alternatively, "''The Simonomicon''"), is unrelated to the Mythos Tome, and best treated as an unrelated occult book; see ''[[Occult_Books#Simon_Necronomicon|Simonomicon]]''...
  
* In the song "Twisted", rapper [[Tech N9ne]] threatens to make a [[Christian]] read their kids the ''Necronomicon'' on [[Christmas]].
 
  
* In the ''[[Wild Arms]]'' video game series, the ''Necronomicon'' is a piece of equipment that can greatly increase the user's magic statistics.
+
== ''H.R. Giger's Necronomicon'' ==
  
* In the fourth of Sierra's ''[[Quest for Glory]]'' series, ''[[Shadows of Darkness]]'', the ''Necronomicon'' is set upon an altar, bound in human [[skin]], and written in [[blood]]. A derivation from tales of the ''Necronomicon'' relate to [[concentration camp]]s.
+
''Necronomicon'' (followed soon after by ''Necronomicon II'') was the first major published compendium of images by Swiss artist [[H. R. Giger]]. Originally published in 1977, the book was given to director Ridley Scott during the pre-production of the film ''[[Alien (1979 franchise)|Alien]]'', who then hired Giger to produce artwork and conceptual designs for the film.
  
* The [[Nintendo GameCube]] game ''[[Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem]]'' is heavily inspired by Lovecraft's works. It features a major item called the [[Tome of Eternal Darkness]], an evil book made of flesh and bone and "bound together with the oddest magickal incantation."
+
Giger's books are a collection of the artist's dark, monstrously erotic "biomechanical" surrealist artwork, and are named after Lovecraft's infamous book of forbidden lore while making no claim of actually being a version of that tome.
  
* In the 13-episode horror anthology series [http://www.mastersofhorror.net/ Masters of Horror], the ''Necronomicon'' is featured in the second episode, an adaptation of Lovecraft's "The Dreams in the Witch House".
 
  
* The tombstone on the front cover of [[Iron Maiden]]'s seminal Live album "[[Live After Death]]" contains the quote "That is not dead / Which can eternal lie / Yet with strange aeons / Even death may die"
+
==Role Playing Game Stats==
  
* ''[[Necronomicon - Geträumte Sünden]]'' (1967) is the title of a feature film directed by [[Jesus Franco|Jess Franco]]
+
; ''Kitab al Azif'' : Sanity Loss 2D10/1D10; Cthulhu Mythos +18 Percent. Average 68 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
  
* In Dan Abnett's ''[[Eisenhorn]]'', the ''Necronomicon'' (called the Necroteuch) is one of the worst books of Chaos in existence. If someone picks it up, the person holding it will be mesmerized by it and will be unable to do anything but stare at the book. It corrupted and caused the death of the entire Saruthi race. It also distorted the way physical dimensions acted near it.
+
; ''Gothic Translation'' : Sanity Loss ?/?; Cthulhu Mythos +16 Percent. Average ? weeks to study and comprehend/ ?hours to skim.
  
* Porndeath/Grind band ''[[Lividity]]'' from USA, have also referred to the ''Necronomicon Ex-Mortis'', as an intro to one of their songs from their '' [[Age of Clitorial Decay]] '' release. The intro talks about how the book was inked with blood, the same blood that used to flow in all the rivers at that time, and how it got lost.
+
; ''Greek Translation'' : Sanity Loss 1D10/2D10; Cthulhu Mythos +17 Percent. Average 68 weeks to study and comprehend/? hours to skim.
  
* The US musical group [[Nox Arcana]] released an album in 2004 entitled ''Necronomicon.'' The predominantly instrumental music ranges from ominous orchestrations with a Middle Eastern influence, evoking mystical reference to the [[Mad Arab Alhazred]]. Vocals consist of various "otherworldly" chants, including ritual phrases from the ''Necronomicon'' according to Lovecraft. The ''Necronomicon'' cd booklet also contains fantasy artist [[Joseph Vargo|Joseph Vargo's]] rendition of [[Cthulhu]] and several pages from the ''Necronomicon'' book as well as other illustrations of [[The Great Old Ones]].
+
; '' Latin Translation '' : Sanity Loss 1D10/2D10; Cthulhu Mythos +16 Percent. Average 66 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
  
== Commercially available books titled ''Necronomicon'' ==
+
; ''English “Dee” Translation'' : Sanity Loss 1D10/2D10; Cthulhu Mythos +15 Percent. Average 50 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
* ''Al Azif: The Necronomicon'' by [[L. Sprague de Camp]] (1973, ISBN 1587150433)
 
* ''[[Simon Necronomicon|Necromonicon]]'' by "Simon" (1980, ISBN 0380751925)
 
* ''H.R. Giger's Necronomicon'' by [[H.R. Giger]] (1991, ISBN 0962344729)
 
* ''The Necronomicon'' by George Hay (1993, ISBN 1871438160)
 
* ''The Necronomicon'' edited by Robert M. Price (1996, ISBN 1568820704)
 
* ''Necronomicon: The Wanderings Of Alhazred'' by Donald Tyson (2004, ISBN 0738706272)
 
  
== See also ==
+
; ''The Sussex Manuscript'' : Sanity Loss D/D; Cthulhu Mythos + Percent. Average  weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
* [[Chaldean mythology]]
 
* [[Cthulhu mythos arcane literature]]
 
* [[False document]]
 
* [[Grimoire]]
 
* [[Necromancy]]
 
* [[References to the Cthulhu mythos]]
 
  
== References ==
+
; ''Das Verichteraraberbuch'' : Sanity Loss 2D10/1D10; Cthulhu Mythos +16 Percent. Average 66 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
* H.P. Lovecraft: "A History of The Necronomicon". Necronomicon Press. ISBN 0-318047-15-2.
 
* H.P. Lovecraft: ''The Case Of Charles Dexter Ward''. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35490-7.
 
* Dan Harms and John Wisdom Gonce III: ''The Necronomicon Files''. Red Wheel Weiser. ISBN 1-578-63269-2.
 
  
== External links ==
+
; '' Joachim Ferry's Notes on the Necronomicon'' : Sanity Loss 1D6/1D3; Cthulhu Mythos +6 Percent. Average 8 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
*[http://www.bardo.org/ani/ Egyptian Book of the Dead]
 
*[http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/9879/necfake.htm Fake Necronomicons]
 
*[http://www.larryniven.org/stories/Necronomicon.htm "The Last Necronomicon"], a short story by [[Larry Niven]]
 
*[http://www.digital-brilliance.com/necron/necron.htm The Necronomicon Anti-FAQ by Colin Low], a spoof FAQ about the "real" Necronomicon
 
**[http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/9879/necfaq.htm A rebuttal of the Necronomicon Anti-FAQ by Dan Clore]
 
*[http://ravensblight.com/Book.htm Necronomicon as Papercraft], make your own Necronomicon Notebook
 
*[http://www.textfiles.com/occult/OTO/necron.txt Sumerian copy of the ''Necronomican''], a purported translation, circa 1985
 
*[http://www.lib.virginia.edu/speccol/exhibits/dead/ Tibetan Book of the Dead]
 
*[http://www.palmyra.demon.co.uk/ Wilson ''Necronomicon''], text of the Wilson ''Necronomicon'' as well as a later project known as the ''R'lyeh Text''
 
*[http://lovecraft.cjb.net The Ultimate Cthulhu Mythos Book List],  listing of all mythos novels, anthologies, collections, comic books, and more
 
  
Original Wiki source: [http://en.wikipedia.org/ Wikipedia]
+
==links ==
 +
[[Necronomicon Hoaxes]]<br />
 +
[[The Necronomicon in Popular Culture]]<br />
 +
http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/History_of_the_Necronomicon
 +
==Sources==
 +
* Wilson, C. P. "The Return of the Lloigor." Tales of the Cthulhu Mythos. New York: Ballantine Pub. Group, 1998. N. pag. Print.
 +
* HPL, various letters about the ''Necronomicon'':  ([http://www.hplovecraft.com/creation/necron/letters.aspx link])
 +
* HPL, "History of the ''Necronomicon''": ([http://www.hplovecraft.com/writings/texts/fiction/hn.aspx link])
  
 
[[Category:Mythos:Tomes|Necronomicon]]
 
[[Category:Mythos:Tomes|Necronomicon]]

Latest revision as of 00:49, 19 May 2020

The Necronomicon is the title of a fictional book created by H.P. Lovecraft. Numerous other authors including Clark Ashton Smith, Brian Lumley, Ramsey Campbell and Keith Herber have added to its contents over the years.

Description

The Kitab al Azif (original Arabic title of the Necronomicon) was written in the early 8th century by Abdul Alhazred. Alhazred was a poet in the court of a minor nobleman in the city of Sanaá. For reasons unknown he left the city and spent ten years wandering in the deserts. During this time he visited places such as Irim; City of the Pillars, the catacombs of Egypt and the temple of Nug and Yeb in the Crimson Desert. In his old age Alhazred lived in the great city of Damascus, where he produced the Kitab al Azif. In the long years that followed many translations of this great work have been made.

Contents

Alhazred's knoweldge is so extensive and wide ranging that describing all the al Azif's contents in such a short space would be nigh on impossible. However, I shall endeavour to give a short list of samples (note: there are many more spells I haven't listed).

  • A section that mentions creatures beyond the threshold of space such as the Tomb Herd.
  • A description of the powers the Other Name of Azathoth gives the wielder (but not the name itself).
  • A chapter on a complicated and lengthy process capable of resurrecting the dead.
  • A formula for temporarily banishing manifestations of Ahtu.
  • Page 984 contains a passage in the Naacal, no translation is given.
  • The Zoan Chant; a spell for reflected harmful powers sent against the caster.
  • A foot note containing an untitled formula capable of opening a gateway to Cthugha.
  • Page 751 contains a long chant capable of summoning Yog-Sothoth if used at the right time.
  • A large amount of information on the Antarctic Elder Things.
  • Information on an ancient aquatic race Alhazred terms the Dwellers in the Depths. This page also features an astrological chart.
  • Instructions on how to destroy an egg of Yig using a combination of musical notes.
  • A prophecy foretelling the rebirth of the high priest Nophru Ka.

Quotes

Here follows a small selection of quotes from various translations of the Necronomicon:

And it was dreamed again of the priest Nophra-Ka and of the words he spake at his death, how the son would rise to claim the title, and the son would rule the world in his father’s name, and the son would revenge his father’s murder, and the son would call the Beast that is worshipped, and the sands would drink the blood of the seed of the Pharaoh. In this manner did Nophra-Ka prophecy. - Excerpt from the Kitab al Azif.
...Verily do we know little of the other universes beyond the gate which YOG-SOTHOTH guards. Of those which come through the gate and make their habitation in this world none can tell; although Ibn Schacabao tells of the beings which crawl from the Gulf of S'ghlhuo that they may be known by their sound. In that Gulf the very worlds are of sound, and matter is known but as an odor; and the notes of our pipes in this world may create beauty or bring forth abominations in S'glhuo. For the barrier between haply grows thin, and when sourceless sounds occur we may justly look to the denizens of S'glhuo. They can do little harm to those of Earth, and fear only that shape which a certain sound may form in their universe... - Translated from the Latin version.
...Men know him as the Dweller in Darkness, that brother of the Old Ones called Nyogtha, the Thing that should not be. He can be summoned to Earth's surface through certain secret caverns and fissures, and sorcerers have seen him in Syria and below the black tower of Leng: from the Thang Grotto of Tartary he has come ravening to bring terror and destruction among the pavilions of the great Khan. Only by the looped cross, by the Vach-Viraj incantation, and by the Tikkoun elixir may he be driven back to the nighted caverns of hidden foulness where he dwelleth... - Translated from the Latin version.
. . . from the space which is not space, into any time when the Words are spoken, can the holder of the Knowledge summon The Black, blood of YibbTstll, that which liveth apart from him and eateth souls, that which smothers and is called Drowner. Only in water can one escape the drowning; that which is in water drowneth not . . . - Translated from the Latin version.
The nethermost caverns are not for the fathoming of eyes that see; for their marvels are strange and terrific. Cursed the ground where dead thoughts live new and oddly bodied, and evil the mind that is held by no head. Wisely did Ibn Schacabao say, that happy is the tomb where no wizard hath lain, and happy the town at night whose wizards are all ashes. For it is of old rumor that the soul of the devil-bought hastes not from his charnel clay, but fats and instructs the very worm that gnaws; till out of corruption horrid life springs, and the dull scavengers of earth wax crafty to vex it and swell monstrous to plague it. Great holes secretly are digged where earth’s pores ought to suffice, and things have learnt to walk that ought to crawl.... - Translated from the Latin version. (HPL, "The Festival (fiction)"
Nor is it to be thought that man is either the oldest or the last of earth's masters, or that the common bulk of life and substance walks alone. The Old Ones were, the Old Ones are, and the Old Ones shall be. Not in the spaces we know, but between them, they walk serene and primal, undimensioned and to us unseen. Yog-Sothoth knows the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the key and guardian of the gate. Past, present, future, all are one in Yog-Sothoth. He knows where the Old Ones broke through of old, and where They shall break through again. He knows where They had trod earth's fields, and where They still tread them, and why no one can behold Them as They tread. By Their smell can men sometimes know Them near, but of Their semblance can no man know, saving only in the features of those They have begotten on mankind; and of those are there many sorts, differing in likeness from man's truest eidolon to that shape without sight or substance which is Them. They walk unseen and foul in lonely places where the Words have been spoken and the Rites howled through at their Seasons. The wind gibbers with Their voices, and the earth mutters with Their consciousness. They bend the forest and crush the city, yet may not forest or city behold the hand that smites. Kadath in the cold waste hath known Them, and what man knows Kadath? The ice desert of the South and the sunken isles of Ocean hold stones whereon Their seal is engraver, but who hath seen the deep frozen city or the sealed tower long garlanded with seaweed and barnacles? Great Cthulhu is Their cousin, yet can he spy Them only dimly. Iä! Shub-Niggurath! As a foulness shall ye know Them. Their hand is at your throats, yet ye see Them not; and Their habitation is even one with your guarded threshold. Yog-Sothoth is the key to the gate, whereby the spheres meet. Man rules now where They ruled once; They shall soon rule where man rules now. After summer is winter, after winter summer. They wait patient and potent, for here shall They reign again. - Translated from the Latin version.
And while there are those who have dared to seek glimpses beyond the Veil, and to accept HIM as a Guide, they would have been more prudent had they avoided commerce with HIM; for it is written in the Book of Thoth how terrific is the price of a single glimpse. Nor may those who pass ever return, for in the Vastnesses transcending our world are Shapes of darkness that seize and bind. The Affair that shambleth about in the night, the Evil that defieth the Elder Sign, the Herd that stand watch at the secret portal each tomb is known to have, and that thrive on that which groweth out of the tenants within—all these Blacknesses are lesser than HE Who guardeth the Gateway; HE Who will guide the rash one beyond all the worlds into the Abyss of unnamable Devourers. For HE is UMR AT-TAWIL, the Most Ancient One, which the scribe rendereth as THE PROLONGED OF LIFE. - H.P. Lovecraft and E. Hoffman Price, Through the Gates of the Silver Key
Bugg-Shash is unbearable! His lips suck; He knows not defeat but brings down His victim at the last; aye, even though He follows that victim unto Death and beyond to achieve His purpose. And there was a riddle known to my forefathers: 'What evil wakes that should lie dead, Swathed in horror toe to head?' - Apparently from John Dee's expurgated Necronomicon, as portrayed by Brian Lumley in "The Kiss of Bugg-Shash" (the volume described there as a leather-bound book whose title was seared from the spine; the quotes were recognized as being from the Necronomicon, but closer examination revealed that much of the Arab's original material on the subject was missing)

Versions

Kitab al Azif

The Arabic manuscripts are faithful reproductions of Abdul al Alhazred 's original. These version are written upon scrolls and preserved in codices. All in all its contents total over one thousand pages complete with star charts, formula tables and astrological maps.

Greek Translation

In 950 AD Theodore Philétas of Constantinople made a Greek translation of the Kitab al Azif. This volume was named the Necronomicon after its opening words. Despite a few errors Philétas's reproductions of the book's charts and tables are faithful to Alhazred 's original illustrations. In 1050 the Patriarch Michel had many of copies of the book burnt.

Sometime between 1501 and 1550 the Italian Aldus Manutius commissioned the printing of around one hundred folio sized copies of Philétas's Greek translation.

Interestingly, the Greek translation contains a spell not present in the original. It is a formula used to open a Gate under Memphis through which the black sphinx; one of the million favoured ones, may enter the world. It is unknown whether Philétas added this spell of his own accord or if it had been added to his Arabic version by a previous owner.

Latin Translation

A Latin translation of Philétas's Greek version was made in 1228 by a Dominican monk named Olaus Wormius (no relation to the 16th century Danish physician Ole Worm). Unfortunately Wormius's beautifully stylised illustrations robbed many of the star charts of their accuracy. This edition was widely printed up until Pope Gregory IX outlawed it, after which many copies were destroyed.

The Latin translation was reprinted in 1477 by a German publisher. The production was printed in black letter and a number of woodcuts were added.

Another reprint was made in Spain during the year of 1662. Both this and the above version were 802 page long folios.

English “Dee” Translation

While staying at the home of a Baron Hauptman the famed occultist Doctor John Dee made an English translation from Hauptman's Greek copy. Dee's translation is garbled and in many places he has changed outright the meaning of certain things to fit with in his own Enochian beliefs. Never the less, his translations of many of the spells remains accurate. This version exists only in manuscript form.

The Sussex Manuscript

Baron Frederic of Sussex produced a supposed translation in illuminated manuscript form. This translation is rife with inaccuracies and fanciful ideas added by the author. It contains such outlandish misconceptions as Cthulhu being a manifestation of Nyarlathotep, and Abhoth having created the solar system. Although this "translation" is commonly called The Sussex Manuscript its proper title is Cultus Maleficarum.

Das Verichteraraberbuch

Doctor Friedrich Wilhelm von Junz made a translation from an unknown Greek copy. This translation may have been published eight years after his death 1840 but I have been unable to track down any further details.

Voynich Manuscript

This is a fictionalized version of the real-world tome, Voynich Manuscript.

The Voynich manuscript was discovered in an Italian castle in 1921 and was translated by Paul Dunbar Lang in the 1960s. It is a fragment, or summary of the Necronomicon translated in the 1200s. The text was highly hidden, behind both a fake cypher, and a medieval Arabic transliteration of a Greek and Latin mix. It mentions Azathoth as a "vortex filled with stars" and follows it with a description of quantum theory. It also mentions references to genes and other very advanced scientific theories as well as more occult texts.

Joachim Ferry's Notes on the Necronomicon

In 1901 the noted occultist Joachim Ferry produced a pamphlet on the book. It is mostly made up of translated quotes from the Latin version, augmented by pages of notes and speculation on their meaning. The accuracy of this publication was called into question when Ferry freely admitted including excerpts from his own dreams.


Necronomicon Ex-Mortis

The Naturan Demanto or Necronomicon Ex-Mortis from the Evil Dead (1981 franchise) might best be treated as an unrelated tome; see Necronomicon Ex-Mortis...


Simon Necronomicon

The hoax mass-market paperback written by "Simon" called The Necronomicon (or, alternatively, "The Simonomicon"), is unrelated to the Mythos Tome, and best treated as an unrelated occult book; see Simonomicon...


H.R. Giger's Necronomicon

Necronomicon (followed soon after by Necronomicon II) was the first major published compendium of images by Swiss artist H. R. Giger. Originally published in 1977, the book was given to director Ridley Scott during the pre-production of the film Alien, who then hired Giger to produce artwork and conceptual designs for the film.

Giger's books are a collection of the artist's dark, monstrously erotic "biomechanical" surrealist artwork, and are named after Lovecraft's infamous book of forbidden lore while making no claim of actually being a version of that tome.


Role Playing Game Stats

Kitab al Azif 
Sanity Loss 2D10/1D10; Cthulhu Mythos +18 Percent. Average 68 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
Gothic Translation 
Sanity Loss ?/?; Cthulhu Mythos +16 Percent. Average ? weeks to study and comprehend/ ?hours to skim.
Greek Translation 
Sanity Loss 1D10/2D10; Cthulhu Mythos +17 Percent. Average 68 weeks to study and comprehend/? hours to skim.
Latin Translation  
Sanity Loss 1D10/2D10; Cthulhu Mythos +16 Percent. Average 66 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
English “Dee” Translation 
Sanity Loss 1D10/2D10; Cthulhu Mythos +15 Percent. Average 50 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
The Sussex Manuscript 
Sanity Loss D/D; Cthulhu Mythos + Percent. Average weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
Das Verichteraraberbuch 
Sanity Loss 2D10/1D10; Cthulhu Mythos +16 Percent. Average 66 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.
Joachim Ferry's Notes on the Necronomicon 
Sanity Loss 1D6/1D3; Cthulhu Mythos +6 Percent. Average 8 weeks to study and comprehend/ hours to skim.

links

Necronomicon Hoaxes
The Necronomicon in Popular Culture
http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/History_of_the_Necronomicon

Sources

  • Wilson, C. P. "The Return of the Lloigor." Tales of the Cthulhu Mythos. New York: Ballantine Pub. Group, 1998. N. pag. Print.
  • HPL, various letters about the Necronomicon: (link)
  • HPL, "History of the Necronomicon": (link)