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The Lazy Man's Guide to Constructing a Call of Cthulhu Adventure
Step One - The Situation
First, figure out an interesting situation that would be fun to get the players involved with. The easiest way to do this is to pick out a scene, or even an entire plotline, from a film or story you like. Don't worry if it's well-known - by the time we're done, your players won't recognize it. Any film or story will do - whether good or bad. To show how it's done, and to make the situation as hard as possible for myself, I went to a cult horror film site, and picked the 45th film (because I'm 45 years old). It turned out to be Devil Times Five, an incredibly bad exploitation film I've never seen. The plot synopsis was "Five teens escape from an insane asylum and take over a mountain resort." So ... from this I will create a scenario. Watch and follow along to see how you could adapt these methods for your own adventure. Of course, you should have an easier time than I, because you won't pick your plot randomly.
Right off the bat, I don't want to use mere teenagers as the villains. This is a Cthulhu story, so let's make them cultists. The escaped lunatic idea is cool, so let's not have ALL the villains be cultists - just one. If we make it an asylum for the criminally insane, and say the other four escapees are escaped inmates that the cultist recruited, we start getting what looks like a fun scenario - being held hostage by a group of homicidally insane bad guys should make the adventure plenty scary. Where shall we have it happen? If I was doing this scenario for an American audience, I'd place it in the Rocky Mountains. Since most of my readers will probably be Europeans, let's put it in the Austrian Alps. Let's move on.
Step Two - The Plot
Look at your basic situation and try to see how it can be developed into a story. What is the bad guy trying to do? Are there other important characters? If the plot unfolded without player-character interference, what would happen? To help do this, you can use some simple steps.
Substep Two/A - Who are Available as Victims?
Most Call of Cthulhu investigations have a moderate-to-high death rate. Frankly, you need to provide bystanders, villains, or allies to be killed in the stead of the player-characters. This is no problem in our scenario - we can have as many people as we want in our "mountain resort" to be terrorized or killed by the bad guys.
Substep Two/B - How are the Players Going to Get Involved?
Obviously necessary, but often non-trivial. Fortunately in this particular scenario, the method is obvious - have the player-characters be guests at the resort so they are taken hostage with the rest. They have no choice, now.
Substep Two/C - How can the Plot be Prolonged?
Many possible adventures are not suitable for Call of Cthulhu because they wouldn't last long enough for a good game. More importantly, we need to have excuses to delay the villain's plot to give the player-characters time to figure out what is going on and thwart it. In our particular situation, why wouldn't our pack of madmen simply murder all the people at the resort in creative ways and move on? Since we've made one of them a cultist, one logical answer is that he is here to DO something. After all, why come to the mountains in the first place? Perhaps it's not coincidence. After a little thought, we conclude that the bad guy is planning to hold a ritual on the mountaintop, and he needs to keep (some of) the people in the resort alive until the time for the ritual.
Substep Two/D - Why Don't the Authorities Intervene?
This is not a problem in every adventure. Often, in fact, the authorities CAN'T intervene because the bad guys haven't done an obvious crime, or because the (the authorities) are hunting the good guys, or because it would be pointless. In this case however, a hostage crisis could bring out the SWAT team and end the scenario way too fast, so we need to keep them at bay, at least until the climactic ending sequence. The best way to keep the authorities out of action is to cut off the mountain resort's communications. The villains can do this themselves by cutting the telephone cables. If we're hosting the scenario in modern times, the players are likely to claim they have cell phones. This isn't really problem -- cell phone jammers are legal and easily available. A small one that would fit in a suitcase would be sufficient to blanket the entire resort hotel. Even better, anyone trying to phone into the hotel would simply think that his connection's phone was turned off, so there's no clue to the outside world at all. Of course, if the people at the hotel were held incommunicado for too long, presumably someone would get suspicious, but we only need to hold them hostage for a day or two for the scenario.